loco-info.com
The reference for locomotives and railcars
Navigation
Random
Search
Compare
Settings
Tender Locomotives 4-2-0 and 6-2-0 „Crampton”[Inhalt]
UIC Classification 2A and 3A
General layout of a Crampton locomotive
General layout of a Crampton locomotive

The “Crampton” design designates a locomotive in which the driving axle is located behind the firebox and the boiler is carried by two or three carrying axles. In different countries, this wheel arrangement is referred to as follows:

CramptonUIC2A3AWhyte4-2-06-2-0Switzerland1/31/4France210310Turkey1314

In the 1840s, it was believed that a particularly low center of gravity was essential for smooth running at high speeds. This was at odds with the large driving wheels needed to achieve high speed. Finally, the boiler had to be mounted above the axle, since individual wheel bearings were not yet possible.

In 1843 Thomas Russell Crampton had the idea of arranging a driving axle with large wheels behind the firebox. The boiler was only supported on the mostly two carrying axles. Right from the start, these locomotives could reach speeds of around 62 mph (100 km/h) and ran extremely smoothly. A few years more than 75 mph (120 km/h) could be reached.

Thomas Russell Crampton (1816-1888)
Thomas Russell Crampton (1816-1888)

The designers at the time were convinced that the low center of gravity was the main reason for the good running characteristics. In reality, however, this was due to the good load distribution with the rear driving axle and the cylinders, which were mostly between the carrying axles. After all, the Long Boiler design was widespread at that time, which, with its large overhangs, became restless with increasing speed.

Although the Crampton was developed in Great Britain, it did not really catch on there. Several manufacturers built various locomotives, which were mainly supplied to railway companies in southern England. Hardly any Cramptons were built in Britain after 1851. Nevertheless, it is likely that this design was a reason why the broad gauge could not prevail, since high speeds could also be achieved on the standard gauge. They had more success in France and southern Germany, where well over 100 units were put into service. Here the Crampton soon became the epitome of the express locomotive. Some locomotives of this type were also used in the USA, but here the 4-4-0 wheel arrangement quickly prevailed for a wide range of applications.

The Crampton's biggest problem was that the driving axle was hardly loaded because the boiler was mostly supported by the carrying axles. This resulted in a low tractive force, which was sufficient in the early days with the light trains. Four-coupled machines were soon also required for express trains, so that the 2-4-0 wheel arrangement prevailed. Construction of the Crampton thus ended in the late 1850s. In France and southern Germany, however, these locomotives could still be found in the following decades in front of light express trains or as a lead locomotive.

Badenian IX
later II a old
Germany | 1854 | 26 produced
No. 7 “Badenia” on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe
No. 7 “Badenia” on a works photo of MBG Karlsruhe

The IX was an express locomotive of the Crampton type, which was originally to be built as a freight locomotive and underwent a number of modifications before it was delivered to the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways. Also due to the very rapid development at that time, the locomotives differed depending on the year of construction.

The characteristics of a Crampton locomotive were immediately apparent. These included a low-lying boiler mounted approximately midway above the two leading axles and a single driving axle with very large wheels located behind the boiler. This design offered great smoothness at high speeds, but only a low friction weight.

Since a broad gauge of 1,600 mm was initially used in Baden, the class IX was also designed for this gauge during its development phase. However, because between 1854 and 1855 all lines were changed to the standard gauge of 1,435 mm, later locomotives were also built with this gauge

Comparison of the first design with a chimney located to the rear and the fourth series from 1863
Comparison of the first design with a chimney located to the rear and the fourth series from 1863
Die Lokomotive, September 1909

Another change before commissioning was the installation of a normal smoke box with the chimney at the front end of the boiler. The first two engines “Adler” and “Falke” had received a return flue from the factory, which means that the chimney was located in the middle of the boiler and thanks to the shorter steam tubes, the back pressure from the cylinders was reduced. However, this arrangement was not convincing due to the flue clogging with soot and ash and quickly disappeared from the scene.

The locomotives had an outside frame, whereby the power was transmitted to the driving axle via Hall cranks. In the second series, the leading axles were in a bogie, but in the rest they were stored in the frame again.

In addition to the two pre-series models, three other series of eight locomotives each were produced. Due to the increasing train weights, the first examples were retired in 1875. The others were first pushed into service with normal passenger trains and later only used for shunting. Today only the “Phoenix” locomotive still exists. It was refurbished in 1960 and has been in the Nuremberg Transport Museum ever since.

Variantseries 1series 2series 3series 4
General
Built18541854-18561858-18591863
ManufacturerMBG Karlsruhe
Axle config4-2-0 (Crampton) 
Gauge5 ft 3 in (Irish broad gauge), 4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length42 ft 9 in43 ft 1 11/16 in43 ft 0 1/8 in41 ft 3 1/4 in
Wheelbase12 ft 3 1/3 in14 ft 4 1/2 in12 ft 3 1/3 in
Fixed wheelbase12 ft 3 1/3 in14 ft 4 1/2 in12 ft 3 1/3 in
Empty weight57,100 lbs58,202 lbs52,911 lbs53,462 lbs
Service weight61,509 lbs62,832 lbs61,068 lbs61,729 lbs
Adhesive weight26,455 lbs28,660 lbs25,353 lbs27,558 lbs
Water capacity1,427 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power130 hp (97 kW)140 hp (104 kW)170 hp (127 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph16 mph17 mph
Starting effort5,699 lbf6,554 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter84 in
Boiler pressure100 psi115 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 x 22 in
Boiler
Grate area11.5 sq ft10.5 sq ft10 sq ft
Firebox area72.5 sq ft62.8 sq ft60.5 sq ft
Tube heating area820 sq ft780 sq ft800 sq ft
Evaporative heating area892.5 sq ft842.8 sq ft860.5 sq ft
Total heating area892.5 sq ft842.8 sq ft860.5 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 05/2022
French Northern Railway Crampton
No. 122 to 161, 165 to 170 and 1 to 12
France | 1849 | 58 produced
Locomotive Magazine, November 1967

The Cramptons of the Nord comprised a total of 58 locomotives, which, like almost all French Cramptons, were built by Cail. They had outside cylinders that were raised and inclined. The bearings were generously sized to reduce wear at high speeds. The wheels on the first leading axle were visibly larger than those on the second and also had to carry a significantly higher load.

As a rule, they pulled twelve coaches and sometimes up to 16, each of which only weighed eight tons. Four batches were delivered between 1849 and 1859, most of which had a driving wheel diameter of 2,100 mm (6 ft 10 11/16 in). Only numbers 134 to 145 from 1853 had wheels of 2,300 mm (7 ft 6 9/16 in) and a higher boiler pressure to compensate. Numbers 165 to 170 from the last batch were the first locomotives in France to have Walschaerts valve gear.

Variant1849 variant1853 variant1859 variant
General
Built1849-1859
ManufacturerCail
Axle config4-2-0 (Crampton) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase16 ft 0 1/2 in14 ft 9 3/16 in15 ft 7 3/16 in
Fixed wheelbase16 ft 0 1/2 in14 ft 9 3/16 in15 ft 7 3/16 in
Empty weight57,100 lbs
Service weight63,714 lbs65,257 lbs64,154 lbs
Adhesive weight23,369 lbs27,778 lbs
Total weight104,940 lbs
Axle load23,369 lbs27,778 lbs
Water capacity1,876 us gal
Fuel capacity4,409 lbs (coal)coal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power255 hp (190 kW)268 hp (200 kW)
Optimal speed26 mph25 mph26 mph
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort6,290 lbf6,400 lbf6,622 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter82.7 in90.6 in82.7 in
Boiler pressure102 psi113 psi109 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 16 9/16 x 22 1/16 intwo, 16 9/16 x 21 5/8 in
Boiler
Grate area15.6 sq ft13.7 sq ft14 sq ft
Firebox area75.3 sq ft710.4 sq ft66.2 sq ft
Tube heating area984 sq ft341.3 sq ft934.6 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,059.4 sq ft1,051.7 sq ft1,000.8 sq ft
Total heating area1,059.4 sq ft1,051.7 sq ft1,000.8 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 03/2024
French Eastern Railway No. 79 to 90 and 174 to 188
France | 1852 | 27 produced
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, January 1896
“Le Continent” in the Cité du train, Mulhouse
“Le Continent” in the Cité du train, Mulhouse
Alf van Beem
Original condition of No. 79 “Le Globe”
Original condition of No. 79 “Le Globe”
Locomotive Magazine, August 1923
No. 184 rebuilt with heavier driving wheels
No. 184 rebuilt with heavier driving wheels
Locomotive Magazine, August 1923

After the Nord had already had 100 km/h fast Crampton machines built with a driving wheel diameter of 2,100 mm from 1849, the Est procured similar ones with a diameter of 2,300 mm three years later. The engines of the Est could then even reach 120 km/h, which was beneficial to the Crampton's reputation as “greyhounds of the rails”. To do this, the maximum speed allowed on the French railway lines had to be increased by decree of Napoleon III.

After the twelve examples numbered 79 to 90 had been delivered by Cail in 1852, another 15 by Schneider-Creusot with numbers 174 to 188 followed in 1855. The first carrying axle had a larger diameter than the second and carried a significantly higher weight. The locomotives could pull up to 15 of the passenger cars of their time and usually reached an average speed of 55 to 75 km/h with nine to ten cars.

Since the adhesive weight of just over ten tonnes later turned out to be insufficient, as with most Cramptons, a conversion took place from 1881. In order to shift the weight further to the rear, particularly massive and heavy wheel hubs and a smaller boiler were installed. To compensate, the boiler was now operated at a higher pressure. Together with other extensions, such as the Westinghouse air brake, the adhesive weight could be increased by about 3.5 tonnes.

It was not until just before the turn of the century that other express locomotives were able to overtake the Cramptons. Number 80 “Le Continent” is the only example that has survived to this day. It was restored to its original condition in 1925 and initially exhibited at the Gare de l'Est in Paris. In 1946 it was made operational again, but has been standing since 1970. Today you can find the theoretically drivable machine in the Cité du train in Mulhouse, but no renewed refurbishment is currently planned.

Variantas builtrebuilt
General
Built1852, 18551881
ManufacturerCail, SchneiderEst
Axle config4-2-0 (Crampton) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Length44 ft 3 7/8 in
Empty weight51,967 lbs67,197 lbs
Service weight59,029 lbs76,496 lbs
Adhesive weight22,487 lbs30,247 lbs
Total weight104,951 lbs
Axle load22,487 lbs30,247 lbs
Water capacity1,585 us gal2,113 us gal
Fuel capacity7,055 lbs (coal)10,141 lbs (coal)
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power228 hp (170 kW)282 hp (210 kW)
Optimal speed29 mph30 mph
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort5,061 lbf5,954 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter90.6 in
Boiler pressure99 psi116 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 15 3/4 x 22 1/16 in
Boiler
Grate area13.9 sq ft14 sq ft
Firebox area81.8 sq ft71.6 sq ft
Tube heating area957.1 sq ft910.8 sq ft
Evaporative heating area1,038.9 sq ft982.4 sq ft
Total heating area1,038.9 sq ft982.4 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 06/2022
Palatinate Railways No. 26 to 63
Germany | 1855 | 17 produced
Replica from 1925 at “150 Years of German Railways” in Nuremberg in 1985
Replica from 1925 at “150 Years of German Railways” in Nuremberg in 1985
Markus Hellwig

The locomotives of the Pfalzbahn with the numbers 26 to 63 were express train locomotives, 17 of which have been produced since 1853 by the Esslingen and Maffei machine works. With the Crampton design, smoother running was achieved and speeds could be reached that were actually classified as unrealistic up to this point. Despite the fact that the drive wheels are only 1,830 mm in size, this type is said to have reached speeds of up to 120 km/h. The French Crampton locomotives, which were also designed for 120 km/h, had a wheel diameter of more than 2,100 mm.

However, this advantage was paid for by the fact that the large driving wheels behind the boiler only applied a small amount of adhesion and therefore little traction was available. The adhesion mass was 9.2 tonnes for the first engines and reached 9.7 tonnes for the last ones, which at that time was sufficient for an express locomotive. The locomotives were not only used in flat areas, but also had to cope with gradients of up to 0.7 percent in the Palatinate Forest.

The Pfalzbahn began scrapping the first engines in 1891. The last one disappeared in 1896, when the considerably more modern P 2.I with the wheel arrangement 2-4-2 were already available. In 1925, the example was rebuilt with the name “Die Pfalz” and ten years later drove to the centenary of the German railways in Nuremberg.

Variantearly variantlate variant
General
Built1855-1864
ManufacturerMaffei, Esslingen
Axle config4-2-0 (Crampton) 
Gauge4 ft 8 1/2 in (Standard gauge)
Dimensions and Weights
Wheelbase12 ft 11 7/8 in
Fixed wheelbase12 ft 11 7/8 in
Empty weight48,502 lbs52,911 lbs
Service weight53,352 lbs58,202 lbs
Adhesive weight20,283 lbs21,385 lbs
Water capacity1,321 us gal
Fuel capacitycoal
Power
Power sourcesteam
Estimated power121 hp (90 kW)134 hp (100 kW)
Optimal speed15 mph
Top speed75 mph
Starting effort5,004 lbf5,731 lbf
Power Plant
Driver diameter72 in
Boiler pressure90 psi
Expansion typesimple
Cylinderstwo, 14 x 24 intwo, 15 x 24 in
Boiler
Grate area10.5 sq ft10.7 sq ft
Firebox area62.4 sq ft
Tube heating area782.5 sq ft
Evaporative heating area738.4 sq ft845 sq ft
Total heating area738.4 sq ft845 sq ft
Calculated Values
steam locomotive
express
last changed: 01/2022
loading...

We use cookies to save the following settings:

  • selected navigation structure
  • selected language
  • preferred units
  • spelling of railway company names

If you refuse the use of cookies, the settings will only be retained for the current session and will be reset to the default values the next time you visit the site.

Display of units

Here you can set the desired unit system for the technical data.

  • Metric: Lengths in meters, weights in tonnes, and volumes in cubic meters
  • Imperial (UK): Lengths in feet/inches, weights in long tons and volumes in imperial gallons
  • Imperial (US): Lengths in feet/inches, weights in pounds, and volumes in US gallons
  • Individual: Depends on the country of origin of each locomotive
Operator names

Here you can set the display of railway company names.

  • Short: Abbreviation or short form of the name
  • Standard: commonly used name, partially translated to English
  • Complete: full name in local language